Important links you should browse
History of Jews in the Land of Israel
History of Anciant Israel and Judea
Hyksos enter Egypt
Hebrews,invited by Yosef, enter Egypt
History of Jews in Egypt
Hyksos contribution to Egyptian gene pool
Berber contribution to Egyptian gene pool
History of Jews in Latin America
History of Jews in Arabian Peninsula
History of Jews in Europe
Arab dispossession of Jews after creation of State of Israel.
Jews of varying roles and status + special roles for non-Jews:
Kohanim - Levi'im - Israelim - Ger Tzedek - Ger Toshav - Noachide
Nusachot - different liturgical formats
Nusach Ashkenaz - few, if any, kabbalistic additions
Nusach Ari - variant of Nusach Sefard used by Chabad Hasidim and other Hasidim
Minhag Aram Soba - Unique to Aleppo, Syria, Musta'arabi Jews
Sephardic Nusach (Spanish-Portuguese older Castilian rite- no Kabbalah)
Nusach Sefard - (some Kabbalistic additions)
Minhag Italiani - (no Kabbalah)
Nusach Temani (Yemenite) - [Baladi (no Kabbalah) Temani (with Kabbalah)]
Nusach Edut HaMizrach (Iraqi) - (many Kabbalistic additions)
Nusach Romaniote - (no Kabbalah)
Nusach Eretz Israel - (reconstruction of Geonic liturgy - to be announced)
Jews of diverse cultural heritage:
Ashkenazi - Sephardi - Mizrachi - Italian - Romaniote - Maghrebim
Common streams of Judaism
You may not be aware that until the emergence of the Reform Movement in the mid-1800's, Jews were generally defined by their customs and liturgy - 1) Ashkenazi (Mitnagdim and
Chassidim), 2) Mizrachi and 3) Sephardi. All three groups held Matrilineal descent and halachic conversion as the only two (2) methods of being counted as part of the Jewish People.
Sephardi - Sephardim (including Mizrachim) have no 'movements' such as Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Reconstructionist therefore all Sephardim are educated in religious
observance consistent with contemporary Orthodoxy.Religious observance will vary from Haredi (ultra-observant) to secular (observant on High Holy Days). Shulchan Aruch is
authoritative text on Halachah, each community has its own liturgical minhagim with Pikei Avot studied weekly in Siddurim. There are dietary differnce between Sephardim and Ashkenazim.
Ashkenazi Orthodox - the various subgroups of Orthodoxy, which maintain significant social differences, and differences in understanding Halakha. These groups, broadly, comprise
Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism, most Hasidic Jewish groups falling into the latter category; their authoritative text on Halachah is the Mishnah Berurah.
Ashkenazi Conservative - (Masorti Judaism in Israel and Europe) is more narrowly defined as a religious group led by the LCCJ, Leadership Council of Conservative Judaism, and
any people affiliated with any of these organizations. Please note that many Sephardim that come to live in United States gravitate towards Conservative Communities due to the very small
number of Sephardic Synagogues in the United States. There are many reasons for this including Ashkenazi Orthodox Synagogues demanding more rigorous observance of members than
Sephardim might have undertaken in their prior homeland; their authoritative Conservative text on Halachah is Responsa originating in the Committee on Jewish Laws and Standards
Ashkenazi Reform - Reform Judaism, born in Germany, espouses religious pluralism; it believes that most Jewish denominations are valid expressions of Judaism. Historically the
Reform view of Orthodox Judaism has been highly negative. Reform began as a rejection of Orthodox Judaism, and early battles between Reform and Orthodox groups in Germany for
control of communal leadership were fierce. Reform viewed Orthodoxy as overly focused on tradition and literal interpretation of scripture that conflicted with modern science. Relations
with the Conservative movement are much more cordial, and Conservative and Reform leaders co-operate on many areas of mutual concern. Standards of belief and practice can vary
widely from region to region, from congregation to congregation, and from individual to individual. There is little expectation of Halachic observance, perfrmance of Mitzvot or Torah study.
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